What is the probability that at least two persons have the same birthday?
If there are 85 students in a statistics class and we assume that there are 365 days in a year, what is the probability that at least two students in the class have the same birthday? Show
I tried solving it by taking into account the fact that it will be extremely difficult to solve for the probability of at least having the same birthday and started off by solving it in the complement fashion, where P(at least two people having the same birthday) = 1  P(every person's birthday is unique), but have been trying to the possible numerator/denominator for this problem. Summary: In a group of 30 people, would you be surprised if two of them have the same birthday? As it turns out, you should be more surprised if they don�t. There are 365 possible birthdays. (To keep the numbers simpler, we�ll ignore leap years.) The key to assigning the probability is to think in terms of complements: �Two (or more) people share a birthday� is the complement of �All people in the group have different birthdays.� Each probability is 1 minus the other. (a) What is the probability that any two people have different birthdays? The first person could have any birthday (p = 365�365 = 1), and the second person could then have any of the other 364 birthdays (p = 364�365). Multiply those two and you have about 0.9973 as the probability that any two people have different birthdays, or 1−0.9973 = 0.0027 as the probability that they have the same birthday. (b) Now add a third person. What is the probability that her birthday is different from the other two? Since there are 363 days still �unused� out of 365, we have p = 363�365 = about 0.9945. Multiply that by the 0.9973 for two people and you have about 0.9918, the probability that three randomly selected people will have different birthdays. (c) Now add a fourth person, and a fifth, and so on until you have 22 people with different birthdays (p ≈ 52.4%). When you add the 23rd person, you should have p ≈ 49.3%. (d) If the probability that 23 randomly selected people have different birthdays is 49.3%, what is the probability that two or more of them have the same birthday? 1−0.493 = 0.507 or 50.7%. In a randomly selected group of 23 people, it is slightly more likely than not that two or more of them share a birthday. For n people (n ≤ 365), your chain of n fractions would be and therefore On your TI83, to get 365Pn you first enter the 365, then press [ What if n > 365? In this case there is no need for any calculations (and in fact the above formula won�t work). If there are 366 or more people, but only 365 possible birthdays disregarding leap year, then two or more of them must share a birthday. Here are some sample results: Probability in a group of n people You can see that the dividing line is between 22 and 23 people. In a group of 22 people, the odds are less than 50�50 that two share a birthday; in a group of 23, the odds are better than 50�50. In a bar with even a small crowd, if you can get someone to take your bet that two people share a birthday, you�ll win more often than you lose. In a randomly selected group of 50 people or more, it is nearly certain that two or more will share a birthday (p ≥ 97%). On a crowded Friday night you can really clean up � if nobody else in the bar knows probability! Excel WorkbookYou can download an Excel workbook to compute the probability of shared birthdays for any size group. The workbook uses two methods to compute these probabilities. Method 1 uses the formula shown above. You�ll notice #NUM errors for groups larger than n = 120, because 365121 is bigger than the largest number Excel can handle. In this particular case that�s not a problem, because the probability is effectively 1 for n > 118 anyway, but still all those #NUM cells look strange. Method 2 solves this by computing the probability for each size group from the probability for a group one person smaller, just as I did in steps (a) through (d) above. That way Excel never has to deal with numbers bigger than 365 in any one step, and the #NUM errors are avoided. 23 people. In a room of just 23 people there’s a 5050 chance of at least two people having the same birthday. In a room of 75 there’s a 99.9% chance of at least two people matching. Put down the calculator and pitchfork, I don’t speak heresy. The birthday paradox is strange, counterintuitive, and completely true. It’s only a “paradox” because our brains can’t handle the compounding power of exponents. We expect probabilities to be linear and only consider the scenarios we’re involved in (both faulty assumptions, by the way). Let’s see why the paradox happens and how it works. Problem 1: Exponents aren’t intuitiveWe’ve taught ourselves mathematics and statistics, but let’s not kid ourselves: it’s not natural. Here’s an example: What’s the chance of getting 10 heads in a row when flipping coins? The untrained brain might think like this: “Well, getting one head is a 50% chance. Getting two heads is twice as hard, so a 25% chance. Getting ten heads is probably 10 times harder… so about 50%/10 or a 5% chance.” And there we sit, smug as a bug on a rug. No dice bub. After pounding your head with statistics, you know not to divide, but use exponents. The chance of 10 heads is not .5/10 but $.5^10$, or about .001. But even after training, we get caught again. At 5% interest we’ll double our money in 14 years, rather than the “expected” 20. Did you naturally infer the Rule of 72 when learning about interest rates? Probably not. Understanding compound exponential growth with our linear brains is hard. Problem 2: Humans are a tad bit selfishTake a look at the news. Notice how much of the negative news is the result of acting without considering others. I’m an optimist and do have hope for mankind, but that’s a separate discussion :). In a room of 23, do you think of the 22 comparisons where your birthday is being compared against someone else’s? Probably. Do you think of the 231 comparisons where someone who is not you is being checked against someone else who is not you? Do you realize there are so many? Probably not. The fact that we neglect the 10 times as many comparisons that don’t include us helps us see why the “paradox” can happen. Ok, fine, humans are awful: Show me the math!The question: What are the chances that two people share a birthday in a group of 23? Sure, we could list the pairs and count all the ways they could match. But that’s hard: there could be 1, 2, 3 or even 23 matches! It’s like asking “What’s the chance of getting one or more heads in 23 coin flips?” There are so many possibilities: heads on the first throw, or the 3rd, or the last, or the 1st and 3rd, the 2nd and 21st, and so on. How do we solve the coin problem? Flip it around (Get it? Get it?). Rather than counting every way to get heads, find the chance of getting all tails, our “problem scenario”. If there’s a 1% chance of getting all tails (more like .5^23 but work with me here), there’s a 99% chance of having at least one head. I don’t know if it’s 1 head, or 2, or 15 or 23: we got heads, and that’s what matters. If we subtract the chance of a problem scenario from 1 we are left with the probability of a good scenario. The same principle applies for birthdays. Instead of finding all the ways we match, find the chance that everyone is different, the “problem scenario”. We then take the opposite probability and get the chance of a match. It may be 1 match, or 2, or 20, but somebody matched, which is what we need to find. Explanation: Counting Pairs (Approximate Formula)With 23 people we have 253 pairs: (Brush up on combinations and permutations if you like). The chance of 2 people having different birthdays is: Makes sense, right? When comparing one person's birthday to another, in 364 out of 365 scenarios they won't match. Fine. But making 253 comparisons and having them all be different is like getting heads 253 times in a row  you had to dodge "tails" each time. Let's get an approximate solution by pretending birthday comparisons are like coin flips. (See Appendix A for the exact calculation.) We use exponents to find the probability: Our chance of getting a single miss is pretty high (99.7260%), but when you take that chance hundreds of times, the odds of keeping up that streak drop. Fast. The chance we find a match is: 1 – 49.95% = 50.05%, or just over half! If you want to find the probability of a match for any number of people n the formula is: Interactive ExampleI didn’t believe we needed only 23 people. The math works out, but is it real? You bet. Try the example below: Pick a number of items (365), a number of people (23) and run a few trials. You’ll see the theoretical match and your actual match as you run your trials. Go ahead, click the button (or see the full page). As you run more and more trials (keep clicking!) the actual probability should approach the theoretical one. Examples and TakeawaysHere are a few lessons from the birthday paradox:
After thinking about it a lot, the birthday paradox finally clicks with me. But I still check out the interactive example just to make sure. Appendix A: Repeated Multiplication Explanation (Exact Formula)Remember how we assumed birthdays are independent? Well, they aren’t. If Person A and Person B match, and Person B and C match, we know that A and C must match also. The outcome of matching A and C depends on their results with B, so the probabilities aren’t independent. (If truly independent, A and C would have a 1/365 chance of matching, but we know it's a 100% guaranteed match.) When counting pairs, we treated birthday matches like coin flips, multiplying the same probability over and over. This assumption isn’t strictly true but it’s good enough for a small number of people (23) compared to the sample size (365). It’s unlikely to have multiple people match and screw up the independence, so it’s a good approximation. It’s unlikely, but it can happen. Let’s figure out the real chances of each person picking a different number:
The multiplication looks pretty ugly: But there’s a shortcut we can take. When x is close to 0, a coarse firstorder Taylor approximation for $e^x$ is: so Using our handy shortcut we can rewrite the big equation to: But we remember that adding the numbers 1 to n = n(n + 1)/2. Don’t confuse this with n(n1)/2, which is C(n,2) or the number of pairs of n items. They look almost the same! Adding 1 to 22 is (22 * 23)/2 so we get: Phew. This approximation is very close, plug in your own numbers below: Good enough for government work, as they say. If you simplify the formula a bit and swap in n for 23 you get: and With the exact formula, 366 people has a guaranteed collision: we multiply by $1  365/365 = 0$, which eliminates $p(\text{different})$ and makes $p(\text{match}) = 1$. With the approximation formula, 366 has a nearguarantee, but is not exactly 1: $1  e^{365^2 / (2 \cdot 365)} \approx 1$ . Appendix B: The General Birthday FormulaLet’s generalize the formula to picking n people from T total items (instead of 365): If we choose a probability (like 50% chance of a match) and solve for n: Voila! If you take $\sqrt{T}$ items (17% more if you want to be picky) then you have about a 5050 chance of getting a match. If you plug in other numbers you can solve for other probabilities: Remember that m is the desired chance of a match (it’s easy to get confused, I did it myself). If you want a 90% chance of matching birthdays, plug m=90% and T=365 into the equation and see that you need 41 people. What is the probability of two people sharing the same birthday?The chance of: two people sharing a birthday would be 1  (364/365), or 0.3%, or 1 in 370.
What is the probability that at least 2 people have the same birthday in a group of 20 people?Probability of Shared Birthdays or, How to Win Money in Bar Bets. What is the probability that at least 2 people sharing the same birthday in a room of 75 people a room of 75?In a room of just 23 people there's a 5050 chance of at least two people having the same birthday. In a room of 75 there's a 99.9% chance of at least two people matching.
What is the probability that among 25 people at least 2 have their birthday on the same day of the year?Answer: The Probability that of 25 Randomly Selected Students, at Least Two, Share the same Birthday is 0.5687.
